Komplex adaptív rendszerek: Complex adaptive systems are self-organizing systems that shows behavior which cannot be inferred from the behavior of their elements. Melanie Mitchell in Complexity, A Guided Tour, defines a complex adaptive system as "a system in which large networks of components with no central control and simple rules of operation give rise to complex collective behavior, sophisticated information processing and adaptation via learning or evolution" (p13). Human beings are perfect examples of complex adaptive systems: The behavior of our brains, hands, feet, lungs, heart, etc., seen individually, does not indicate what our behavior will be. However, non-animate systems can also exhibit complex, adaptive behavior, for example the economy or a stock exchange. For a fuller discussion of organizations as complex adaptive systems, readers can refer to Margaret J. Wheatley, Leadership and the New Science, 3rd Ed., Berrett-Koehler Publishers, 2006 and to Elizabeth McMillan, Complexity, Management and the Dynamics of Change, Routledge, 2008. Melanie Mitchell's Complexity, A Guided Tour (Oxford University Press, 2009) is also an excellent layman's introduction to the science of complex adaptive systems.
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